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Academic Integrity: Citation


A citation, in its simplest terms, is considered a reference to a source. 

Citation is how writers avoid plagiarism by showing in the body of the paper where the words or information came from using an appropriate formatting style (e.g. AMA, APA) and at the end of the paper in the bibliography providing the complete information about the in-text source (author, name, date, etc.). 

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Definition of citation.

In-Text Citation & Bibliography

Credited citations within manuscripts link specific passages to sources consulted or quoted. This is done through in-text parenthetic notes, footnotes, or endnotes with an accompanying bibliography or list of works cited at the end of the paper.  Citation formats are determined by the citation style. Some common citation styles are:

  • AMA Manual of Style 
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Manual of Style

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in the written paper, there must be a corresponding entry in the bibliography. Here are two examples.


In the study of developmental psychology in education, it was found that children have different stages of development in early childhood (Johnson et al., 1999). 


Johnson, N. G., Roberts, M. C., & Worell, J. E. (1999). Beyond appearance: A new look at adolescent girls (pp. xvi-464). American Psychological Association.